The Huisgen cycloaddition or ‘click chemistry’ could certainly take part of the blame for the resurgence of one of the bad boys of organic chemistry: azide. Coming from a large – Risk averse – pharma, I have always tried to avoid such fragments, possibly due to the implications and paperwork if (or more likely when) it goes wrong. So when an article with ‘Azide’, ‘Facile’ and ‘Safe’ is published it’s certainly worth reading.
The article from Wang’s group is looking at the diazotransfer reaction converting a primary amine to the corresponding azide.
The pre-Goddard-Borger and Stick era was using triflate azides as diazotransfer reagents which proved to be prone to explosion (Figure 1).
The Wang article here is looking at a safe protocol to the imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide (compound 4, Figure 2) reagents developed and optimised over the last 6 years.
Key requirements to the described ‘safe’ route were to avoid the presence of NaN3 with strong acids, minimise the excess of NaN3 and avoid the formation of explosive intermediates. Previously reported procedures to prepare diazotransfer reagents such as those depicted in Figure 2 all seem to engage sulfonyl chloride, leading to the generation of (N3)2SO2 as a highly explosive byproduct. Wang starts from sulfuryl diimidazole which after mono methylation is treated with NaN3 to give the imidazole sulfuryl azide reagent (Figure 3).
Worth noting that dimethylation of the sulfuryl diimidazole is not observed, so no highly explosive (N3)2SO2 species were observed and that sulfuryl diimidazole itself proved unreactive with NaN3 (Figure 4).
Furthermore, Wang report that the aqueous conditions the reaction is performed in prevent the formation of the explosive (N3)2SO2 intermediate from the diazotransfer reagent itself (Figure 5).
Does that make the whole process safe? What about stability and storage? Wang et al. prepared the imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide (compound 4, Figure 2) in over 100g scale but seems to have used it in-situ….
Imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide (the preferred diazotransfer reagent from the Figure 2 bunch) is usually prepared as a HCl salt. The ‘safety update’ from Goddard-Borger and Stick, published in 2011 as a follow up to their original 2007 ‘shelf-stable’ imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide, reports that ‘imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide hydrochloride is hygroscopic and reacts slowly with water to produce hydrazoic acid. Concentration of the mother liquors from which imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide hydrochloride crystallised has resulted in an explosion. This solution may contain sulfonyl diazides and/or hydrazoic acid byproducts which are both extremely sensitive, explosive substances’.
The Sejer group seems to work regularly with such diazotransfer reagents and reports that ‘rigorous drying of the HCl salt of imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide followed by storage at -20⁰C makes it stable for >1 year’ and that tetrafluoroborate and hydrogensulfate salts of imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide were found to be much better with respect to shelf life.
Back to Wang et al.’s conclusion that the protocol can be applied to large scale preparation in both academia and industry…. I will ensure it’s on my day off!